But more often we do not stop to smell the roses because of problems near and far. Problematic behavior (behavior means what one is or is not doing) can be examined via a Review of Areas assessment, culminating in a “behavior x-ray.” (1)(2)
During my third year of residency in psychiatry I was
assigned to the hospital outpatient liaison service. It was my role
to respond to requests from the other specialties to carry out timely
psychiatric consultation service. One afternoon a resident in
obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) contacted me to consult on a
A forty-year-old female patient had come in two weeks before
for more than the usual checkup for breast or cervical cancer. She
had pigmentary changes around her nipples, enlargement of her
abdomen, cessation of menses, and morning sickness and was absolutely
certain she was pregnant.
Even though the physical examination did not support the
diagnosis of pregnancy the resident ordered the standard laboratory
pregnancy test. During this follow-up visit in the clinic he told her
she was not pregnant. This made her angry. She was adamant that she
was pregnant. She had never been a mother and this was her one and
only opportunity. Then, suddenly her anger turned into despair. If
she was not pregnant she no longer wanted to live.
The resident diagnosed her disorder that of pseudocyesis, a
false pregnancy, one of the somatoform disorders. She had a delusion
about her soma, the organic tissues of her body. Thus, the resident
had a psychiatric crisis on his hands. I told this resident I would
evaluate his patient in the OB/GYN clinic within the hour.
Before meeting her I looked at the Biomedical Area in her
chart and found no additional information of merit and I knew her
major emotions. So I would gather information as to her behavior,
what she had or had not been doing, in her social, vocational,
recreational, and learning areas.
I introduced myself. She was courteous, controlled her
emotions, and indulged my questions knowing that no matter what I
found or diagnosed she would not budge from her belief that she was
I was not surprised to discover that she had no social life
with family or others, was not working, had no meaningful recreation
or hobbies, and was not attending school or interested in current
affairs. I wrote a brief note in the outpatient chart along with my
hand-drawn ROA circle, her behavior x-ray, demonstrating deficiency
in four areas. At my request she said she would remain in the OB/GYN
clinic while I called the resident.
I told him that the pseudocyesis was being fed by her
metabolic energy, as this energy was totally confined to her
emotional and biomedical areas. If we rejected her delusion she would
probably take her life. Medication was out of the question because
she would fear it would harm the fetus. The solution lay in
integrating psychiatry and obstetrics.
We needed to stall confronting her with the truth. The
resident would tell his patient that he wanted a second pregnancy
test to be certain. During the two-week interim for the test results
his patient would attend an outpatient psychiatric group therapy that
met twice a week. Hopefully, her metabolic energy would be diverted
from fueling her delusion to fueling her revived social area.
Two weeks later the OB/GYN resident called me. Before he
could tell his patient that the lab test was again negative she
blurted out that she hoped she was not pregnant. She was making
friends in the group. She learned from them that it would be
difficult for someone at her age of forty to raise a child on her
own. A few lived near her so they were setting up plans to do things
together. The group therapy gave her useful social behavior, which
would undoubtedly expand to include recreational and possibly
voluntary vocational behavior.
Here is the final behavior x-ray:
1. The ROA formula can be a simple, sophisticated, and rapid x-ray
evaluation of behavior: what one is or is not doing.
2. Metabolic energy that is confined to two
areas can be problematic.
3. Each one of us is a tree in the forest of mankind. To be able
to smell the roses might oblige us to use a formula such as the ROA
to examine and heal problematic behavior of ourselves and our forest.
4. The integration of psychiatry and medicine has great potential
to maneuver metabolic energy. It led to removal of a patient’s
delusion that she was pregnant.
(1) Paltrow KG, Brophy JJ. Review of areas: A Key to diagnosis.
McGraw-Hill, Inc. Postgraduate Medicine 42: A 137-A 141, December
(2) Paltrow KG. Review of areas: Updated method of patient
evaluation. McGraw-Hill, Inc. Postgraduate Medicine Vol 67/NO 1:
211-215 Jan 1980©.